"One is not born, but rather becomes, a woman", or as Toril Moi puts it "a woman defines herself through the way she lives her embodied situation in the world, or in other words, through the way in which she makes something of what the world makes of her". Such masculinized language that feminist theorists address is the use of, for example, "God the Father" which is looked upon as a way of designating the sacred as solely men (or, in other words, biblical language glorifies men through all of the masculine pronouns like "he" and "him" and addressing God as a "He"). It encompasses debates about the relationship between feminism and economics on many levels: from applying mainstream economic methods to under-researched "women's" areas, to questioning how mainstream economics values the reproductive sector, to deeply philosophical critiques of economic epistemology and methodology. "The race to be male". Some feminist theorists have reclaimed and redefined such words as "dyke" and "bitch" and others have invested redefining knowledge into feminist dictionaries. In the early 20th Century, Simone de Beauvoir’s 1949 work The Second Sex exposed the power dynamics surrounding womanhoo… Kimberlé Crenshaw's work is central to feminist legal theory, particularly her article Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory, and Antiracist Politics. She asserts that these institutions, the purveyors of so-called ‘knowledge’ in western society, are monopolized by a very specific demographic, (i.e. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Kristeva, Julia, Toril Moi (Ed. ), Welchman, John C., Rethinking Borders. [25], Elaine Showalter describes the development of feminist theory as having a number of phases. It has been said[by whom?] What is commonly understood as feminist theory accompanied the feminist movement in the mid-seventies, though there are key texts from the 19th and early- to mid-20th centuries that represent early feminist thought. Queer theory largely acknowledges the oppressiveness and toxicity of conventional gender relations. It is based on the integration of Black feminist theory and critical race theory. (shelved 57 … bell hooks is particularly well known for her informal writing style. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. Bosley, Deborah. Additionally, these are also debates which shape feminist theory and they can be applied interchangeably in the arguments of feminist theorists. de Zegher, Catherine and Teicher, Hendel (Eds. Humans decide. Feminist political theory as a term only consolidated in the West during Women's Liberation movements of the 1960s and 70s. Indeed, in those times feminist approaches also used to depict the world politics. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, Vol. It questions the "modern political theory, dominated by universalistic liberalist thought, which claims indifference to gender or other identity differences and has therefore taken its time to open up to such concerns". The first she calls "feminist critique" – where the feminist reader examines the ideologies behind literary phenomena. [81] According to Warrior: "Economics, as it's presented today, lacks any basis in reality as it leaves out the very foundation of economic life. The analytical tools which feminist theory developed to critique gendered discourses drew on a variety of sources from sociology of gender to French theory's critique of those forms of dualistic thinking that subordinated the feminine ‘other.’ Increasingly, these analyses began to be turned upon the subject of feminism … The first phase involves the creation of a 'Certificate in Feminist Thought' consisting of two modules - 'Introduction to Feminism' and 'Re-reading the Second Wave.' In W. Eadie (Ed. . The inclusion of postmodern theory into feminist theory is not readily accepted by all feminists, some believe postmodern thought undermines the attacks that feminist theory attempts to create, while other feminists are in favor of the union. Moreover, Bunch, the women's and human rights activist, states that society used to see lesbianism as a threat to male supremacy and to the political relationships between men and women. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005. The idea here is that we must recognize that not all perspectives are the same but that all are legitimate and valuable to the movement. [18] For instance, economic deprivation, status equality between the sexes, distinctive socialization patterns, racism, and sexism should all be taken into account between Black males and Black females. For example, women's bodies have been objectified throughout history through the changing ideologies of fashion, diet, exercise programs, cosmetic surgery, childbearing, etc. The standard sex determination and gender model consists of evidence based on the determined sex and gender of every individual and serve as norms for societal life. Anthony questioned the authoritative principles of the constitution and its male-gendered language. [53], Many feminist film critics, such as Laura Mulvey, have pointed to the "male gaze" that predominates in classical Hollywood film making. 35, No. Feminist theory and critique are interwoven throughout, with one chapter devoted to feminist thought, which includes the work of such thinkers as … Other prominent feminist art historians include: Norma Broude and Mary Garrard; Amelia Jones; Mieke Bal; Carol Duncan; Lynda Nead; Lisa Tickner; Tamar Garb; Hilary Robinson; Katy Deepwell. One example of where the standard definition of gender alters with time happens to be depicted in Sally Shuttleworth's Female Circulation in which the, "abasement of the woman, reducing her from an active participant in the labor market to the passive bodily existence to be controlled by male expertise is indicative of the ways in which the ideological deployment of gender roles operated to facilitate and sustain the changing structure of familial and market relations in Victorian England". Known for her intellectual brilliance, Simone de Beauvoir is the famed companion of existentialist, Jean-Paul Sartre. Any results or conclusions targeted to Black males were usually assumed to be the same situation for Black females. Usedas an umbrella term, it generally aims to group several different kindsof people such as transsexuals, drag queens and kings, some butchlesbians, and (heterosexual) male cross dressers. Feminist Theorists: Three Centuries of Women's Intellectual Traditions ... Feminism & Feminist Theory. Usually the amount spent on them is merely for the maintenance of their lives and, in the case of those prostituted, some money may be spent on clothing and such accouterments as will make them more salable to the pimp's clients. In the U.S. Department of State, women make up 29 percent of the chiefs of mission, and 29 percent of senior foreign positions at USAID. Sojourner Truth addressed the issue of women having limited rights due to men's flawed perception of women. Feminist legal theory stems from the inadequacy of the current structure to account for discrimination women face, especially discrimination based on multiple, intersecting identities. In: Armstrong, Carol and de Zegher, Catherine (eds). Feminist psychology critiques the fact that historically psychological research has been done from a male perspective with the view that males are the norm. The model claims that the sex-determination of a person exists within a male/female dichotomy, giving importance to genitals and how they are formed via chromosomes and DNA-binding proteins (such as the sex-determining region Y genes), which are responsible for sending sex-determined initialization and completion signals to and from the biological sex-determination system in fetuses. Though feminist thought was largely ignored in mainstream social theory until the last few decades, feminist social theory has a history as long and storied as feminist movements themselves. The Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir: Gendered Phenomenologies, Erotic Generosities. Radical feminism opposes existing political and social organization in general because it is inherently tied to patriarchy. In the results of the study, males used more angular illustrations, such as squares, rectangles and arrows, which are interpreted as a "direction" moving away from or a moving toward, thus suggesting more aggressive positions than rounded shapes, showing masculinity. It aims to understand the nature of gender inequality. In addition to her commitments to feminism, she also was an important figure in India’s independence from Britain, and an associate of Gandhi. "A myth invented by men to confine women to their oppressed state. Bosley explains that circles and other rounded shapes, which women chose to draw, are nonhierarchical and often used to represent inclusive, communal relationships, confirming her results that women's visual designs do have an effect on their means of communications. Feminist communication theory has evolved over time and branches out in many directions. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005. It examines women's and men's social roles, experiences, interests, chores, and feminist politics in a variety of fields, such as anthropology and sociology, communication, media studies, psychoanalysis,[1] home economics, literature, education, and philosophy. John Stuart Mill’s 1861 call for women's suffrage in The Subjection of Women is a notable exception. Questions about how knowledge is produced, generated, and distributed have been central to Western conceptions of feminist theory and discussions on feminist epistemology. "The Changing Woman" is a Navajo Myth that gave credit to a woman who, in the end, populated the world. Racism is described in the monosexual paradigm as a dichotomy where individuals are either black or white, again nothing in between. Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, or philosophical discourse. New York 1975, Stocking, George W. Jr. After Tylor: British Social Anthropology, 1888–1951. [87] Ultimately, the court denied the plaintiff the ability to represent all Blacks and all females. When intersex babies are born, doctors assign the baby a gender based on their own socially formed judgments about what the baby’s genitals seem to be. Other theorists addressed political oratory and public discourse. 47-70. 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